Art & Design Majors and Programs
Computer-Aided Design (CAD)
Layout and Production
3D Design is the designing of three-dimensional space. People visualize mentally in 3D, which can be demonstrated by thinking of any object: You think of it as a single object, not in three projection views. 3D design works much the same way, with the designer creating a model on screen as if it were in his mind. Having changed and added elements to complete the design, the model can be oriented to in plan, side or front views which become 2D projection drawings - exactly the same drawings that would be created with traditional 2D methods. 3D Designs are often used to simulate objects or situations prior to production in order to reduce the overall cost.
Education in the field has significant overlap with the fields of Animation, Computer-Aided Design (CAD), Computer Art and Holography. Skilled 3D Design professionals are important to science and engineering, the entertainment industry, product design and packaging, training and testing.
- Art Schools offering programs in 3D Design.
- Open Directory - Arts: 3D Graphics - Publications, organizations, and employment opportunities related to the 3D industry.
- 3D World - Online magazine for 3D artists.
- Autocad training website for 3D design - These Autocad tutorials cover techniques that are common to the AutoCAD, AutoCAD LT, and Desktop range of Autodesk products.
Advertising is a means of communicating to deliver a message to a specific audience, most often associated with business. Creating the desired appearance and value for the advertiser and/or its products usually makes the difference between success and failure.
Educational programs for Advertising aren't usually found within an art department, but more often are stand-alone departments or within a Communications, Journalism, Public Relations or Marketing Department. Overlap with art departments is necessary for those who actually aim to design advertisements and visual campaigns, not necessarily for those who coordinate all aspects of advertising campaigns. In the industry, this is usually in the Creative Department, and requires knowledge of advertising trends and strong visual communication skills, overseeing progression of campaign from rough sketches through final production.
- Advertising Schools
- Demand for Skilled Copywriters Soars - Ad agencies seek skilled writers to drive campaigns to success.
- Adweek.com - News of advertising and media industries; a wealth of information and resources.
- American Advertising Federation - Resources for advertisers and those who use the advertising business.
The airbrush is a hand-held tool that distributes liquid and powder material by air pressure. Liquids are sprayed from air-brushes to decorate cakes, paint murals, render technical illustrations, retouch photographs, and (a recent trend) put designs on finger nails. Glass may also be etched using the air-brush by spraying aluminum-oxide powder. The air-brush was the forerunner to the spray paint gun which now paints so many products of today (like your car). It was patented in 1882. The airbrush, properly used, can produce "photo-realistic" renderings that rival other forms of artistic medium.
Airbrushing courses are offered privately and at many high schools, art schools and departments, but degrees or certificates in the art form are not common.
- Airbrush Action Magazine - Site of the magazine devoted to airbrush art.
- Airbrush.com - Includes a gallery, forum, and other resources for airbrush artists.
Animation is the illusion of movement. All films are created by joining together a sequence of still photographs with very small changes in-between. These photographic sequences appear to move because our eyes can't keep up with the speed of change. Animated films are created by filming drawings instead of photographs. Each single drawing is called a frame. When twenty four frames per second - each one slightly different - move in front of our eyes, it enables us to see the picture moving. This movement brings the drawings to life giving us the characters and the stories of the cartoon or animated series.
Careers for animation program graduates include 3D illustrators, digital artists, storyboard artists, game designers, video post-production artists, broadcast graphics designers, film animators. The Bureau of Labor Statistics includes some information regarding careers for "Multi-media artists and animators" in its write-up on Motion Picture Production and Distribution.
- Art schools offering programs in Animation
- Animation Magazine - Resources on the art, business, and technology of animation.
- Animation Artist - Industry news, features, articles and interviews, forums, and tutorials.
- Animation World Network - Dedicated to the art and industry of the international animation world with an exhaustive database and a student corner section .
Antiquing is an art of broad spectrum. It involves a variety of methods used to produce an appearance of age and wear, but it applies to a multitude of surfaces and materials, including wood, glass, metal, plastic, paint, etc. Some methods involve using glazes which allow colors to blend into crevices to give an antique appearance. The antiquing process is very lengthy and usually involves numerous steps to obtain the proper finish.
In terms of education, the art form and skills are taught within some art programs, sometimes associated with jewelry, metals or furniture design programs. However, it is not commonly seen as a course or degree program unto itself.
- What is Antiquing? - From Essortment
Apparel Design students study the visualization, design, and pre-production of products for apparel-related industries, learning to turn creative ideas into reality. Education in the field may include significant overlap with Fashion Design, Fibers/Textiles/Weaving and Footwear Design. Career possibilities include apparel designer, design development coordinators, and computer-aided design (CAD) system managers. Using both computer technology (including CAD) and traditional methods, apparel design professionals develop everything from marketing themes, color direction, fabrics, graphics and packaging to sketches and specifications.
- Apparel News -Website for weekly published journal for the global textile and apparel manufacturers with an extensive amount of resources for the apparel industry .
- American Apparel and Footwear Association - National trade association for apparel, footwear and fashion industries.
- Fabrics.com - Internet trading site, dedicated to textiles and related products and industries.
- Worldwide Responsible Accredited Production (WRAP) - Promotes and certifies apparel manufactures worldwide.
Architecture is an art, a technology and a business. Architects guide clients through the entire design and construction process; they must consider materials, technology, cost, structural stability, as well as aesthetic, artistic, and practical qualities; they provide an environment of space, light and climate, changing its context by its location and form and conveying artistic meaning.
All states in the US require architects to be licensed (registered) by the state in which they practice, and education typically requires five or more years of professional studies followed by several years of internships and passage of the Architect Registration Examination (ARE). The Bureau of Labor Statistics offers a great description of the profession, including necessary training, job outlook, and expected earnings in its 2001 Occupational Outlook Handbook, under Architects, Except Landscape and Naval.
- Architecture Schools
- Architectural Forum - Wealth of information and resources for the both the subject of architecture and for architects as well.
- Architect Magazine - Articles and job postings.
The field of Art Administration bridges the balance between Art and Business, combining aspects of the visual arts related to management, marketing and finance. Educational programs often provide for students to choose a primary arts emphasis, while also taking courses in business & economics, art history, communications, information studies, communications, public relations, marketing, law, and fundraising. Professionals often work in arts management for museums, galleries, advocacy or professional organizations, foundations, art management companies, and schools.
- Association of Arts Administration Educators - Professional organization for the field, offers training and resources.
The University of North Texas' website describes Art Criticism as "responding to, interpreting meaning, and making critical judgments about specific works of art." Art Critics analyze, evaluate, interpret, and study of works of art, then translate them by articulating the intangible into the tangible. Ideally, the profession emphasizes development of an appreciation for and the use of art, including elements and principles of design, aesthetics, art terminology, art history, style of expressions, and the function of past and modern art concepts. Students can expect to focus on developing their writing skills to express interpretations of art through structured exercises that emphasize the three basic structural elements: form, content, and context.
- The Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism - Excellent source of information, links and resources.
Art Directors are found in almost every category of Art, taking conceptual ideas and putting them into a finished product. They often work closely with production to see projects through to completion, working to make every aspect of an artistic project the best that it can be. Depending on the type and scope of the project and the size of the company, this can involve any aspect of art creation, including the less "artistic" aspects such as organizing, scheduling, budgeting, advertising, and liaisoning with everyone else involved.
Students learn the tools of the Art Director: written and verbal language and the communication of ideas, which may include considerable overlap with fields such as Arts Management and Visual Communication. They learn how to present ideas and execute them in a professional manner.
- The Art Directors Guild - Good amount of data and resources, though it is specific to the film and television industry.
The most effective art teachers are sociable and have the ability to motivate others. Like all teachers, they must be able to communicate their work to students, they must be knowledgeable in the arts, and they must be able to transfer that knowledge to students. Personal characteristics might include creativity, independence, patience, persistence, and caring for people.
Art Education programs are one of the most popular options in the visual arts, accounting for about 5 percent of all art majors and more than 65 percent of AA, BA, MA or doctorate candidates (according to statistics from the National Association of Schools of Art and Design, 2000-2001 HEADS Report, completed from a survey of 228 of its accredited member organizations). For graduates, some of the career possibilities beyond the classroom include positions as administrators, art critics, teacher supervisors, and art therapists. See the Bureau of Labor Statistics write-up on "Education, Training, and Library Occupations" for a detailed look at the field of teaching.
- Arts Education Partnership - A coalition of arts, education, business, philanthropic and government organizations to promote the arts in schools .
- National Art Education Association - Excellent resources and data.
- World Artist Directory - Art teacher resources.
An art history program or concentration provides students with a knowledge of the contributions that artists and art make to our society. This, of course, is a huge undertaking given the spectacular history of art from prehistoric art to 20th century art and everything in-between. Education in the field involves the study of visual images and objects in various media, in particular, painting, drawing and sculpture, architecture, photography, video and the decorative arts.
Art History programs often focus on the historical, cultural, social, and political context of art and encourage the development of analytical and visual skills and an appreciation for differing viewpoints. Graduates have many opportunities, including, but not limited to, working as museum professionals, writers or critics, teaching art history, dealing in art, or using the education as a foundation for further study.
- Career Alternatives for Art Historians - Lists job possibilities and types of employers for art history majors.
- Association of Art Historians - Professional organization dedicated to the study of the history of art, including lists of publications and jobs.
According to the American Art Therapy Association, "Art Therapy is a human service profession that utilizes art media, images, the creative art process and patient/client responses to the created products as reflections of an individual's development, abilities, personality, interests, concerns and conflicts. Art Therapy practice is based on knowledge of human developmental and psychological theories which are implemented in the full spectrum of models of assessment and treatment including educational, psychodynamic, cognitive, transpersonal and other therapeutic means of reconciling emotional conflicts, fostering self-awareness, developing social skills, managing behavior, solving problems, reducing anxiety, aiding reality orientation and increasing self-esteem.
Art Therapy is an effective treatment for the developmentally, medically, educationally, socially, or psychologically impaired; and is practiced in mental health, rehabilitation, medical, educational, and forensic institutions. Populations of all ages, races, and ethnic backgrounds are served by art therapists in individual, couples, family, and group therapy formats."
- American Art Therapy Association - Professional organization for the field.
A general degree in Art prepares students for careers in design, illustration, and fine arts, and it often requires studio art, art history, and electives outside of art. It strives to create a foundation for good communication, knowledge and social interaction. The Bureau of Labor Statistics offers an overview of art careers in its write-up on Artists and Related Workers.
- Artist Daily - Art blog and resources from artists.
- Ancient Art Magazine - A thorough site for common studies within most general art majors.
- Contemporary Art Society - Specific to Great Britain.
Blacksmithing is the art of heating and shaping metal. The traditional craft has been an art form since primitive men began making tools and weapons, and today, forged iron commonly takes a variety of forms from artistic sculptures and jewelery to decorative household items such as rails, gates and furniture. Blacksmithing students learn the equipment, the forge, building and maintaining fire, basic metallurgy, history, and the types and qualities of coal, iron, and steel. Blacksmithing is primarily an art form today, as welding and machines have largely replaced the blacksmith's ability to create affordable, practical items.
- Artist-Blacksmiths' Association of North America (ABANA) - Great resources on education, events, forums and jobs, including a big list of schools with blacksmithing programs.
- Blacksmith Forge Links - An abundance of links to resources of the field, including organizations, publications, supplies, shops and more.
- Appalachian Blacksmiths Association - Excellent resources, including schools, advice, history, glossary and more.
Book artists use traditional forms to compliment the text and content of books. It is a relatively new art form, some examples of which include miniature books, pop-up books, puppet books, tunnel books, and motion books. Although many aspects of book artistry have been recognized for centuries as artwork, book art itself has only come to be recognized and studied as an art form unto itself in the last 30 years.
Students of Book Arts will learn about adhesives, inks and papers, taking courses in bookbinding, printing and publishing, papermaking, typography, calligraphy, history and sculptural work. Graduates will find employment opportunities with printing and publishing companies, book binderies, engraving companies, and paper companies.
- Printing Workers - Excellent description of the career, education and trends in the field.
- Book Arts Resources - Enormous reference site on the subject.
- The Book Arts Web - Links to references in nearly every facet of book arts.
- Dog Eared Magazine - A journal of book arts.
- Center for Book Arts - Offers courses, workshops and seminars taught by experienced book artists, and provides hands-on training in all aspects of traditional and contemporary bookmaking.
Calligraphy is the art of handwriting and lettering which uses fonts, pens, inks, paper and other writing tools to create artistic text and is commonly used in announcements of special events, where a hand-crafted piece of text is desired. Today, the hand-craft is often overshadowed by computer-generated texts and fonts, but it is still commonly taught in schools and used by artists throughout the world, particularly in historic and cultural contexts. Calligraphers are often referred to as scribes, which also includes the art of illumination or page decoration, and its study is often included in curricula as a division of the Book Arts.
- What is Calligraphy? - Definition of the art, plus a few resources from the Calligraphy Societies of Florida.
- Washington Calligraphers Guild - Professional organization for the art of calligraphy.
Cartooning is the support art of story telling, found in both animation and comic art. It used in light comical context of the funny papers to illustrated novels. It typically involves figures, characiture drawings, inkings and digital computer creation. It ranges from hand drawn comic strips to computer-generated cartoons found in feature films. Cartooning is fairly commonly-offered by art schools; there are also a handful of schools dedicated to cartooning and a great number of privately-offered cartooning courses. It is common for cartoonists to also study or graduate with degrees in animation, illustration, graphic design and drawing. A brief description of careers in cartooning is included in the Bureau of Labor Statistics' write-up on Art and Design Occupations.
- Association of American Editorial Cartoonists - Site for editorial cartoonists, student cartoonists, and others with a professional interest in cartooning.
- National Cartoonist's Society - Includes links, news and professional and educational resources.
Ceramics is one of the oldest mediums of art, predating civilized societies. According to Encyclopedia Britannica, ceramics is the "art or process of making useful or ornamental articles from clay by shaping and then firing them at high temperatures." In typical artistic mediums, clay is molded to any infinite number of shapes for an almost infinite number of industrial and domestic uses.
In terms of education, ceramics is one of the most popular artistic specialties, with almost 1,000 students in BFA and MFA programs at accredited art and design schools in the United States, according to the National Association of Schools of Art and Design. Students can expect some overlap with fields of painting, lithograph, and printing.
- The American Ceramic Society - Good site with many resources for artists and students.
Cinematography is defined as the art and process of making movies - however, it involves much more than simply recording an event with a video camera. Cinematography encompasses the artistic vision of filmaking, including considerations of lighting, photography, camera movement and angle, producing and final presentation. The cinematographer, cometimes referred to as the Director of Photography, works closely with the film director to determine the best way for each scene to be shot and lit.
The study of cinematography includes drawing, photography, lighting, theater, art direction, and filmmaking. Degrees and certificates do not appear to be particularly comon, but Film and Video related majors at the undergraduate and graduale level are and cinematography is a large subset of that field of study.
- Film Schools
- What is Cinematography? - An article from AssociatedContent.com.
- Cinematography.com - Good site with many resources for professional motion picture camera people, including forums, news and shops.
- American Society of Cinematographers - Professional association whose resources include publications and online seminars.
- Yahoo!'s Cinematography - A directory of cinematography-related resources
The field of commercial art is broad and varied, involving print advertising and promotional material, television, signs, packaging, web pages and almost any other form of visual communication for the purpose of attracting attention and interest in products, services or ideas. Because most businesses need to sell products or promote themselves in some way, commercial artists can be found in almost any workplace.
Students will find significant overlap with fields of graphic design, illustration, printing and publishing, computer graphics, exhibit design, visual communication and other art majors.
- The World Of Commercial Art - An excellent article describing the field with career options and resources.
Computer-aided design (CAD) programs are used by architects, engineers, graphic artists, and many others to create anything from artwork to fashion design patterns to technical blueprints and maps to genetic modeling. It is most often used to create images in two and three dimensions. Students of CAD can expect to gain experience in a wide array of computer programs and applications related to their own specialized field of interest. CAD's many applications have made it an integral part of a great many industries, particularly technical and precision-oriented fields of work, such as drafting and engineering - its widespread use makes skilled graduates very marketable.
- Art Schools Offering Programs in CAD / Computer Aided Drafting
- The CAD Society - Membership site with references and links.
- CADinfo.net - Large reference site with news, references and resources for the field.
Computer art combines traditional art and technology to create any type of artwork using computer programs. In practice, computer art is used in infinite ways in every industry, from the simplest of graphics to the retouching of photographs to three-dimensional animations for the movie screen to genetic modeling in scientific research. The artistic potential that computers have is ever-expanding.
Students will find no shortage of computer art courses, degrees, certificates, workshops, and self-tutorials at almost any visual arts school, and computer art professionals will find their skills in demand throughout the art community.
- Computer Graphics Society - An international, professional society whose purpose is to promote computer graphics by exchanging ideas to find innovative solutions.
- Computer Graphics World - Online publication featuring articles and products.
Crafts include, but are not limited to, art forms such as quilting, candlemaking, carving, beadwork, stitching, needlepoint and sewing, jewelry making, and woodworking. These art forms are not always associated with fine arts, but the detail of the work is often even more intricate. Art students will find classes and workshops in any number of crafts, and BFAs and MFAs in Crafts are available at some visual arts schools. The National Association of Schools of Art and Design reports more than 500 "Crafts" majors in accredited BFA and MFA programs in the US.
- American Crafts Council - A membership organization open to anyone with an interest in craft arts.
- The Crafts Report - Monthly business magazine for the crafts professional with great resources and links.
- The Arts & Crafts Society - An online community dedicated to the philosophy and spirit of the arts and crafts movement.
Design is the art of representing or communicating an idea. It is a broad term which encompasses many fields of study and occupation, combining art, engineering, and conceptualization. The principles of design have been applied to all man-made things, from the cars we drive to the clothes we wear to the furniture we sit on to the books we read. Academically, the study of design often requires a specialty, which could be Apparel Design, Architectural Design, Environmental Design, Exhibit Design, Fashion Design, Floral Design, Footwear Design, Furniture Design, Game Design, Graphic Design, Industrial Design, Interior Design, Product Design, Transportation Design, etc. In any case, a design-related education should balance artistic talent and with a sense of consumer preferences. Professionally, designers are both artists and engineers, working in every sector of the economy. The Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) offers an excellent write-up for Designers and individuals interested in this field should be sure to check out this information (link below).
- Art Schools Offering Programs in Digital Design
- Art and Design Occupations - Excellent description of the career, education and trends in the field as provided by BLS.
- Harvard Design Magazine - Aims to provide a forum for thoughtful and articulate practitioners, journalists, and academics.
- Journal of Design Communication - Scholarly, refereed publication of the Design Communication Association.
- Design School Financial Aid - Find out about obtaining various types of financial aid and funding for your education in design.
- AIGA, the professional association for design - Events, resources, publications.
Desktop Publishing is the creating of documents with computers and printers, rather than through traditional mechanical methods, such as the printing press. The popularity of desktop publishing has revolutionized the printing industry in recent decades, as many businesses now rely on their own in-house expertise to produce simple documents such as flyers, reports, and newsletters. In the past, these projects went to a print shop.
Education in desktop publishing will often include study of the major software programs used in the field (PhotoShop, Illustrator, and QuarkXPress) on both Macintosh and IBM platforms. Certificate programs are common, but advanced degrees are not - however, courses are often included within other art-related majors, such as Advertising, Graphic Design, Commercial Art, Media Arts and Visual Communication. Professionals can expect to write and edit text, create graphics, work with hard copy and digital photographs and drawings, develop advertising campaigns, typeset, and a host of other tasks associated with document design and production. The Bureau of Labor Statistics offers an excellent write-up, which those interested in the field should be sure to read (link below).
- Desktop Publishers - Description of the career, education and trends in the field.
- Webopedia.com - Topic definition and links.
- Publish.com - Resource for information on graphics, digital content creation, imaging, printing, photography, e-media, desktop publishing and document management technologies.
Drafting refers to the creation of technical drawings to be used as visual guidelines leading to an object's production, also including details such as dimensions, materials and process. Traditionally, this work has been done by hand on drawing boards using precision tools for exact measurements, but today, most drafting is done through computer-aided design (CAD). It is used in many fields of specialty, including (but not at all limited to) medicine, architecture, fashion, sports, and manufacturing.
Because drafting is between art and engineering, education requires math and science, in addition to artistic design skills, depending on the specialty within the field. However, the emphasis is more on the technical skills than the artistic, and drafting itself is not commonly found as a course of study at art schools, but it is common at technical schools which also frequently carry other art-related majors. Drafting professionals work closely with engineers, surveyors, architects, and growth within the industry is expected to expand at an average pace through 2010, according to the Bureau of Labor Statistics. BLS offers an excellent write-up on Drafters, which anyone interested in the field should read (link below).
- Drafters - Career information, including descriptions, salaries and industry outlook.
- American Design Drafting Association - A membership society dedicated to serving the professional growth and advancement of the individual working in the design drafting community.
- Drafting and Design Books - From the Journal of Light Construction.
Drawing is a basic technique that very often is the first artistic skill to be developed by people in their lifetimes. As such, it is often considered to be the foundation of an artist's ability, and those who choose to further develop their talent may end up in any number of artistic or technical fields. The most common mediums can include pencil, charcoal, ink, etching and pastels.
One who majors in drawing is essentially a fine arts major, and can expect to work toward a deeper understanding of visual languages, as well as develop drawing skills that would be essential for their specialty. The field has significant overlap with many other artistic fields, including Illustration, Design, Drafting, Animation, Calligraphy, Cartooning, and Visual Communication. Drawing courses and workshops are common throughout the United States. Careers in drawing can include architecture, graphic design, commercial art, medical illustration, film animation and more.
- Graphic Artists Guild - National union of illustrators, designers, web creators, production artists, surface designers and other creative .
- ARTtalk - Monthly eight-page newsletter that deals with a variety of subjects such as painting, printmaking, sculpture, ceramics, arts and crafts, and more.
- AllCrafts - Drawing and painting magazines and projects.
Enameling is the art of fusing glass to metal. The oldest known enameled artifacts date back to the 13 century BC, and, today, 20th century artists use enameling to create murals and sculptures, as well as a myriad of practical and decorative items, such as jewelry, cookware and vases. The art of enameling is commonly taught in craft-oriented classes and workshops, and it is often offered as a course in art schools and programs - particularly as a sub-discipline of Glass Arts, Metal Arts or Jewelery. However, degrees and certificates in enameling itself are not common.
- Enameling Links - Compilation of resources all about enameling.
- The Enamelist Society - Dedicated to the art of enameling
Environmental Design is a broad field that includes landscape architecture, environmental planning, architecture, city and regional planning, industrial design, interior design and construction management. Environmental Design applies environmental science to the efficient and healthy design and operation of buildings and cities. From feng shui to golf course design to large-scale city planning, these are the people working toward conservation and safety in our environment.
An Environmental Design degree provides the skills and knowledge required to participate in a wide range of existing employment sectors, and to pioneer in new fields. Cities and towns are always growing and changing, so there are many avenues to explore which usually require four years of undergraduate work leading to a bachelor of arts degree, masters degree, and doctoral work. Some academic overlap can be expected with fields such as Architecture, CAD, Interior Design, Landscape Architecture, and Urban Design.
- The Center for Environmental Design Research - Organized research unit of the University of California at Berkeley.
- Environmental Design and Construction - Magazine for successful building, economically and environmentally.
- Environmental Building Design and Construction Portal - Description, career and educational links, books, etc.
Exhibit Designers design and build exhibits for museums, trade shows, theater sets, visual merchandising, and interior design. From table-top designs to large scale show rooms, they translate ideas into 3-D marketing and/or educational structures. The field combines a knowledge of three-dimensional and graphic design with computer and marketing skills. The Exhibit Designers and Producers Association (EDPA) states that communicating a product, service or corporate message through an interactive environment is the goal of exhibition design. Close to $4.8 billion is spent annually on trade-show exhibits in North America alone, so it is a sizable professional field.
Classes in exhibit design are only beginning to be taught in design schools today, so Exhibit Designers typically have backgrounds which include a wide variety of design disciplines, such as Industrial Design, Architecture, Interior Design, Graphic Design and Theater Design. Strong creative skills and the ability to work independently - and as part of a team - are essential.
- Exhibitor News Network - Features, industry tips, trade shows, stores, etc.
- Designers - Excellent description of careers, education and trends in the field, including a discussion of Exhibit Design.
Fashion designers design clothing and accessories, creating original clothes according to market demands. Most fashion designers, however, work for apparel manufacturers, creating designs of men's, women's, and children's fashions for the mass market. People in the fashion industry work for magazines, television shows, public relations firms and salons; as stylists, wardrobe consultants, or photographers; for textile, apparel, and pattern manufacturers; for distributors of clothing, furnishings, and accessories; and for department stores and other business that market clothing and accessories. Because style and fashion trends change quickly, fashion designers must work hard to stay in tune and change with the market. Long hours and extensive travel to production sites are considered par for the profession.
Education in the field often requires a two- or four-year degree, including some training in textiles, fabrics, and ornamentation, as well as fashion. Fashion Design students should expect to study creative design and drawing, pattern-making and sewing, management, and commercial realism, to name just a few.
- FashionSchools.com - The Fashion School and Program Directory, including links to dozens of art schools, departments and workshops with fashion-related programs.
- Art Schools Offering Programs in Fashion Design
- Careers and Education in Fashion - Article discusses what to expect as a student in fashion design and what to look for when selecting a school or program.
Textiles, fabrics, spinning, and weaving have been a part of our culture for ages. This ancient art dates back to thousands of years B.C., and although some of the equipment has changed, the process has remained the same. All fabrics are made through the process of knitting, weaving, netting or braiding. Textile manufacturing is the second largest money-making industry in the United States (second only to the aerospace industry).
A person looking for a career in textiles needs to be well versed in many areas from fiber manufacturing to fabric dyeing and finishing. Many colleges offer classes in textiles and weaving, and degrees are offered from the certificate level to the Masters; students can expect some overlap with majors such as Apparel Design, CAD, Crafts, Fashion, Folk Art, Product Design, and Visual Communication. Although the Bureau of Labor Statistics reports that overall employment of "textile, apparel, and furnishings workers" will decline through 2010, it also states that "because of the large size of this occupation... many thousands of job openings will arise each year from the need to replace persons who transfer to other occupations, retire, or leave the occupation for other reasons."
- Textile, Apparel, and Furnishings Occupations - A good write-up from the Bureau of Labor Statistics, but it does not apply to a wide range of career possibilities in the art industry.
- Fibersource - The American Fiber Manufacturers Association's website, aimed at educating the general public.
- FabricLink - Provides education on fabrics, apparel, home furnishings, etc.
- Handweavers Guild of America, Inc. - Dedicated to promoting the textile arts.
- TextileIndustries.com - Both the site and magazine serve decision-makers in the textile industrial complex responsible for management, manufacturing, and textile innovation.
- Textile World - An online magazine for the textile business.
Opportunities for visual artists in Film and Video are many and varied, ranging from make-up and storyboard artists to 3D animation creators to directors and producers. Professionals in the field create everything from the shortest television commercial to the longest feature-length movie, and visual artists play a major role in a great many aspects their production. Given the size of the entertainment industry and the explosion of cable and satellite programming worldwide, jobs should be in high demand in all sectors of the industry for the foreseeable future, according to the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS).
Educational programs in film and video are often based on a liberal arts foundation, with specializations in history, theory, design, production and many other possibilities. Depending on their emphasis, students majoring in the field can expect some significant overlap with other artistic fields such as 3D design, animation, art criticism, art direction, CAD, cinematography, media arts, multimedia, and visual communication. A few good career write-ups for the field are provided by BLS for Actors, Film and Video Editors and Camera Operators, and Producers and Directors.
- ArtSchools.com Guidance Interview: Film & Video - To succeed in a career in film direction takes a "bulldog tenacity," says director Terrence Nelson. Read more about his views and experience here.
- AssistantDirectors.com - "Your Gateway To Film Production".
- Film & TV Connection - An entertainment industry talent placement service with 5,000 students worldwide.
- Director's Net - An information portal for entertainment professionals.
- Careers for Film Buffs and Other Hollywood Types - Book covers a variety of career options for those interested in film.
Fine Art is a broad career field representing many disciplines which could include specialization in almost any artistic specialty in both the visual and performing arts. Career opportunities for Fine Artists specializing in visual arts include gallery artists, commission portrait artist, publicly and privately commissioned sculptor or printmaker, fine jewelry making and ceramics designer, background painter for animated films, scenic artist for film or theater, muralist, or artisan/craftsperson. The opportunities are really as wide and varied as the interests of the fine artist.
Students can earn a Bachelor of Fine Arts (BFA) and can continue on to receive their Master of Fine Arts (MFA), which is considered the highest degree for studying the fine arts. Many students who earn their MFA go on to teach college level courses. Many students who enter a Fine Art program focus on Art History, for which a doctoral degree is also available to pursue; these students can further their education, seeking a career as an art critic, a gallery director, or a museum education program specialist.
- Traditional Fine Arts Organization - Not-for-profit dedicated to "futhering education in American art".
Floral designers work with live, dried, or artificial flowers and combinations of foliage and accessories, creating arrangements and designs for all occasions. The duties of a floral designer largely depends on the size of the business and the number of designers working there. For small businesses, the designer may do everything from growing and purchasing flowers to keeping financial records.
The educational requirements for a floral designer is generally less than for most other design fields, most floral designers learn their skills on the job. However, professionals who want to advance more easily in the field will usually complete a Floral Design certificate program at vocational and technical schools. Two- and four-year programs in floriculture, horticulture, floral design, or ornamental horticulture are also offered at colleges and universities. The emphasis is for students to understand the principles of floral design and to master the techniques needed to create arrangements for any occasion. Topics studied include basic floral design, wedding, sympathy and church flowers, special occasions and decorations, and Christmas arrangements, to name a few.
The job market for floral designers includes availability in all areas of retail flower shop operations; wholesale sales of flowers, supplies, plants and interior plantscaping.
- American Institute of Floral Designers.
- AboutFlowers.com - Ideas and resources on floral design, from the Society of American Florists.
- Designers - Excellent description of careers, education and trends in the field, including a discussion of Floral Design.
The fashion industry in general is going through a boom time, and footwear is considered one of the most important fashion accessories. Footwear Designers keep in mind market trends and styles. Manufacturing footwear has become a highly specialized affair and requires sophisticated machinery and technically skilled manpower. Thorough knowledge of science and machines is essential for managers in order to handle advance technology. Designers should have a good visual imagination and be creative and innovative.
There are only a few institutes that offer undergraduate degrees in footwear design, and designers are typically graduates with a diploma in footwear design. At the post-graduate level, footwear science and engineering can be taken as a specialization, which will enhance the designers ability to create quality, marketable footwear. Knowledge of computer-aided design (CAD) is essential for having a successful career as a footwear designer. Quality footwear manufacturers primarily employ designers. One can also set up their own design consultancy organization and fabrication units of special footwear use.
- Footwear Digests - Quarterly online magazine which tells more about whats happening in the world of Footwear Industry.
- Footprints of Our Soles - A walk through the history of shoe design.
- Shoeworld - Website for the footwear trade, fashion and shopping.
- Footwear Industries of America's (FIA) - Professional association for individuals in the footwear business.
Furniture Designers design furniture for manufacture based on design trends, production costs and capabilities, and characteristics of the market. Furniture designers may design and prepare detailed drawings of fixtures, forms, or tools required to be used in production. Professionals may also be required to design custom pieces or styles and must be strongly involved with the fashion industry in order to stay aware of current trends.
Education in the field is available at two- or three-year professional schools which award certificates or associate degrees in design, and some four-year colleges grant degrees in fine arts with specialties in furniture design. Students can expect to study CAD, Drafting, Model-making, Product Development, Upholstery, and Design.
About one-third of furniture designers are self-employed, according to the Bureau of Labor Statistics, and those interested in this field should expect keen competition.
- American Society of Furniture Designers - Non-profit membership organization for furniture designers.
- Furniture Magazine - Online magazine based on the subject.
- Furniture, Design, and Woodworking Directories - Links to furniture associations, design sites, and international furniture sources.
- International Furnishings and Design Association - Alliance of leaders from every segment of the furnishings and design industry.
The convergence of education and the entertainment industry has resulted in the field of "Game Design," which can include everything from computer programming, graphic art and illustration to user interface, marketing, and packaging design. Game Design professionals may handle it all, or specialize in different pieces of the final product.
Educational studies for this field can be found at technologically-based colleges where some detailed programs may be 80 weeks long. Using sophisticated graphics and specialized design tools, students learn how to design, script, and develop various categories of electronic games. Because of the mathematical nature of the programming, statistics and probability also is usually required for those striving to design their own games from top to bottom. Beyond the technical skills, good writing and communications skills are critical.
The main career paths within the game industry are Programmer, Artist, and Producer. Because so many who enter the field wish to design their own games, professionals often operate their own business in software game design and production or in training departments of business, industry and educational institutions. Employment opportunities also exist in the software production industry, but the market is extremely competitive.
- Breaking in: Preparing for your Career in Games - an excellent article from the International Game Developers Association with lots of links and resources.
- Game Developer Magazine - Print publication written specifically for creators of entertainment software.
- Gamasutra - The art and science of making games .
- Game Design Bulletin Board - Place to ask questions about game design and get answers.
Graphic designers prepare visual designs for print, electronic, and film media. This includes everything from the layout of magazines, newspapers and web pages, to brochures and newsletters, to company logos, book and CD covers, billboards, movie credits and labels. Their visual designs and images are often used to inform, persuade, and/or move specific audiences to act, and their work is seen in every kind of visual communication imaginable.
In education, graphic design is often a required course of study within any visual artistic discipline. As a subject unto itself, graphic design students can still expect significant overlap with other art disciplines such as advertising design, CAD, commercial art, desktop publishing, drawing, design, illustration, layout and production, multimedia, product design, and visual communication. Professionally, graphic designers can be found in any business that has anything to sell or promote - which means just about any business. The Bureau of Labor Statistics has a write-up on Designers that includes a lot of information that applies to graphic design.
- Careers and Education in Graphic Design - Our personal compilation of articles aimed at helping you learn more about schools, careers, degrees, and financial aid opportunities in graphic design.
- ArtSchools.com Guidance Interview: Graphic Design - Get inside info on art careers, education & more: A riveting interview with Fred Carlson whose clients include Sony Music & The Wall Street Journal.
- ArtSchools.com Guidance Interview: Graphic Design - Learn about one of the most exciting art careers - we interview top illustrator, James Mellett. You gotta see this guy's work!.
- An Introduction to Graphic Design.
- sensebox source - Directory of graphic design schools.
Illustration is the art of creating images for the sake of visual communication. It is the process of being able to get across an idea, concept or emotion through an illustration, and it has been a part of human existence since the drawings on cave walls of the first nomadic people. Illustration has evolved with every passing era of belief, and is now even incorporated into the new computer age, with the advent of technical illustration. This aspect of illustration used various forms of computer software, such as CAD, Photoshop, and Illustrator to make illustration less time consuming. Illustrators are often trying to solve a visual problems for their clients.
Illustrators of all kinds are encouraged to have a firm foundation in two-dimensional design. Instruction in computer-related software is also recommended, especially for those hoping to get into careers in technical illustration. Printmaking may also be an asset, as many careers involve publication illustration. There are even career opportunities that involve restoration of ancient manuscripts, which would require a knowledge base in history.
- Directory of Illustration - Marketing program for the professional illustrator.
- Society of Illustrators - Excellent professional organization site, including career guidance, exhibitions, a history of the field and more.
- Illustration Magazines - Decent list of magazines related to the field, from Robins Design.
- Illustration House, Inc. - On-line gallery devoted to the art and history of illustration.
Most people probably don't give much thought to the impact of industrial design on their everyday life - but hundreds of new and innovative products are being released into the marketplace every day and, when seen on the morning news, people do take notice of that. Industrial Design involves the design of these consumer and capital products, from telephones and cars to toothbrushes and computers. What drives the work for professionals is often the concept or "big idea" that elevates a project into something unexpected. Industrial designers often work as part of a team, combining art with research on product use, customer needs, and production capabilities.
A college degree with at least a bachelors degree usually is needed to break into this field, which ranks as one of the most popular majors for both BFAs and MFAs - about 4 percent of all BFA and MFA graduates specialize in Industrial Design, according to a member survey of the National Association of Schools of Art and Design (NASAD). Familiarity with Computer-Aided Design (CAD) is generally expected int he field. Curriculum in industrial design includes a foundation in the design and creative process and hands-on experience with using tools, materials, and software; students can expect overlap with sub-specialties such as 3D Design, CAD, Drafting, Furniture Design, Product Design, Toy Design and Transportation Design, depending on their own interest. Graduates will be prepared to apply for entry-level positions such as junior or staff designer, assistant, intern, or studio assistant.
- Industrial Designers Society of America - Voice of industrial design, representing the profession to business, government, education, the media and the general public and serving its information and networking needs.
- Core77 Design Magazine and Resource - Includes articles, employment opportunities, schools, discussions and more.
- Association of Women Industrial Designers - Advocate of projects which enrich the growing public awareness of the work of women industrial designers - past, present and on the horizon. .
- Yahoo!'s Industrial Design Links - Dozens of links related to the field.
- Designers - excellent Description of careers, education and trends in the field, including a discussion of Industrial Design.
Interior Design refers to the decoration and functionality of any interior space. Interior Designers act as consultants to ensure that their clients get what they want and need. Interior Designers must be good with color, fabric, and furniture; they must have knowledge of materials and possess good communication skills; their work includes creating lay outs, and even purchasing, ordering, supervising contractors, and overseeing budgets. The Bureau of Labor Statistics states that "most salaried interior designers work for furniture and home furnishings stores, interior designing services, and architectural firms. Others are self-employed and do freelance work — full time or part time — in addition to a salaried job in another occupation."
Professionals in the field typically hold at least a bachelor's degree in Interior Design. Education in the field will strike a balance between mastering design skills and creativity that will lead to innovative thinking about the inner and outer environment. Prospective students searching for a school should take into consideration the amount of training a school has to offer (degrees are attainable from an AA to an MFA), whether it has any nationally-recognized graduates, reputation, and accreditation.
- ArtSchools.com Guidance Interview: Interior Design - Award-winner Jeff Smoler offers the inside secrets for succeeding and excelling in the world of Interior Designer.
- American Society of Interior Designers - Professional organization of Interior Designers.
- Contract Magazine - Written for interior designers, architects and contract furniture dealers.
- Designers - Excellent description of careers, education and trends in the field, including a discussion of Interior Design.
Professionals in the field of jewelery may be buyers, sellers, appraisers, designers, mold and model makers, assemblers, engravers or polishers; often, jewelers specialize in a number of these areas for large manufacturing companies or small businesses. The work entails cutting, setting, and polishing stones and/or the repair and adjustment of jewelry, either of which requires precision work and attention to detail. According to the Bureau of Labor Statistics (Jewelers and Precious Stone and Metal Workers), about 30 percent of all jewelers are self-employed, and they most often earn their education at trade schools, through correspondence courses, or on the job.
Learning the art of jewelry making deals with developing aesthetic values, technical skills and a commitment leading to personal expression in works of art. The process of jewelry-making requires fabrication, enameling, casting, designing and ultimately creating a wearable or decorative piece of art. New technologies in the field include computer-aided design (CAD) and the use of lasers for cutting and improving the quality of stones and intricate engraving or design work. To gain this kind of in-depth knowledge often requires a BFA in Metals/Jewelry, which includes general education, foundations, and a studio core, as well as art and design electives.
- Manufacturing Jewelers & Suppliers of America - Large reference data for Jewelery Makers Association.
- Ganoksin.com - Library of articles, publications, reports, and technical data on gem and jewelry related topics, a substantial library of articles, publications, reports, and technical data on gem and jewelry-related topics.
- GemHut - Online gem source.
Landscaping combines elements of art and science to create a functional, aesthetically pleasing extension of indoor living to the outdoors. To work toward a desirable landscape design, the Landscape Designer must have knowledge of art elements and design principles. Landscape Designers design an environmental landscape for their customers by using landscape software, some of which combines a design program along with plant encyclopedias to aid in your work.
Landscape Designing requires not only being able to make the environment aesthetically pleasing, but having the knowledge to use the correct materials, placement, and plants to provide not only a service to your customers, but to improve the environment in an ecologically friendly way. Students studying landscape design will receive a comprehensive training in ecology, aesthetics, and technical skills. A typical curriculum may focus on research, design techniques, products, services and the environment.
Career options in this field include landscape designer, landscape contractor, nursery operations worker, government agency employee, horticulture consultant, garden and landscape management, parks and reserves, residential landscape designer, and groundskeeper/maintenance worker. Some of these careers may require more than two years of college study. Because the career options are widespread there this is a very marketable field to be in.
- Lawn & Landscape Magazine - Portal to professional lawn and landscape industry.
- Landscape Design Journal - For those individuals interested in landscape design, landscape architecture and garden design.
- American Nursery & Landscape Association - Provides education, research, public relations, and representation services.
- Landscape Design, Gardening Information - Botanical gardens, gardening information, plants & landscape design.
Layout and Production
Layout and Production has a broad range of educational and career choices. Included under layout and production is print production, pre-press, graphic design, and typesetting. Layout and production can be designing and producing magazines and newspapers, or it can also be video or television production. No matter what the specific area, the basic philosophy is to be able to design a layout including text, type, and images for any circumstance and to assist in its production.
Education in the field requires at least a Bachelor's Degree, usually in a specific field such as Animation, Graphic Design, Commercial Art, Illustration, Printing and Visual Communication. The actual courses can vary widely depending on the program; however, most programs focus on the development of problem-solving skills and the application of communications, math, science and technology.
Career options include web design and production, industry layout, layout artist. Because the field is so broad, career prospects are booming, and the pay is moderate to high.
- Advertising & Public Relations: Job Options - Includes several production-related career descriptions.
- Layout Artist Jobs and Career Options - Information on the career and job options from ADigitalDreamer.com.
Lettering refers to the art of symbols used in writing, covering Typography, Printing, Calligraphy, and Typeset. As a profession, lettering refers to the use of art and design principles and techniques to design quality signs, decals, banners, and much more. A knowledge of letter is required for nearly any type of graphic design work, and careers are often with graphic designers or businesses that create window splashes, custom signs, lighted signs, and do graphic other work. Jobs include logotypes, calligraphy and lettering for graphic designs projects, and even calligraphy work to be shown in gallery shows.
Because of the nature of the work, education in lettering is most often found as a subset of Graphic Design, Commercial Art and Illustration. When searching for a college that offers lettering, look for "Sign Lettering and Design." Most college programs for lettering begin with an associates degree and are sometimes followed with a bachelor's degree in a more specific area.
- Calligraphy, Lettering Art and Artist Books - Links, articles, news, and books.
- Drawing and Lettering Aids - Supplies for lettering.
Plato said that a good education is the combination of social, emotional, physical, cognitive and spiritual development. A liberal arts education provides the foundation to define and pursue career goals as changes occur. While non-liberal arts universities focus on majors, liberal arts students focus on a broad base of subjects within their first two years, and then move into classes that help them develop specialized skills. A liberal arts curriculum is designed to facilitate a lifetime of continuous learning by providing the skills, tools, and encouragement needed to succeed. Students will sharpen their skills of inquiry, research, analysis, and communication. Most liberal arts colleges are four years and combine traditional, interdisciplinary, and experiential modes of learning with the use of advanced technology. Graduates develop a well-rounded, general background that opens them to a wide variety of jobs in the arts, depending on their interests and academic emphasis.
- Peterson's Liberal Arts Jobs: The Guide That Turns Learning Into Earning - Covers the career possibilities for liberal arts majors.
- An Examination Of The Issues Facing Career-Based Curriculum Policies In Liberal Arts Colleges And Universities - An interesting article about liberal arts education and careers.
Lighting professionals use light, illumination and shadows as a means of artistic expression. The techniques are commonly used not only in photography and cinematography, but also in exhibit design, stage design, and interior design.
Lighting Education is both a science and an art, often referred to as "Lighting Technology." In this curriculum, students are provided with an overview of lamps (light bulbs), advanced lighting technologies, ballasts, luminaries (lighting fixtures), lighting controls, and much more. Students learn how to develop lighting designs, create mock installations, and how to use computer-based optical modeling. Career options for graduates include fixture designers and manufacturers, landscape lighting specialist, and fiber optic lighting specialist to name just a few. Gaffers, or lighting technicians, set up different kinds of lighting needed for filming.
- Professional Lighting & Production Magazine - Reference for anyone working or interested in the professional lighting industry.
- Professional Lighting and Sound Association - Source of information for entertainment, presentation and event technology professionals worldwide.
- The Light Resource - Job classifieds, what's new in lighting, projects, etc.
Marbling is the "art of printing multi-colored swirled or stone-like patterns on paper or fabric" (Galen Berry). A common technique uses rakes and combs to make a pattern on a surface. Paper treated with alum is then carefully laid onto the surface. A few seconds later, the paper is removed and the pattern is transferred onto the paper. One of the main uses of marbling in the past, and even today, is that the paper has become an essential part of bookbinding, with the papers being placed on the inside covers of books. Besides bookbinding, marbled paper can be used for picture framing, note cards, collages, origami, and for covering just about anything.
There is formal education in that marbling skills are commonly taught at art schools as a course or a portion of course, degree- and certificate-granting specialties are rare. However, workshops and classes on marbling are common. A career and education in the printing and production field is one way to incorporate marbling and other printing techniques into a sellable job market. Otherwise, the market for marbling is very limited.
- Suminagashi - The Ancient Art of Japanese Marbling - Includes history, links, books, workshops and more.
- SkyCraft Design - All sorts of links about marbling.
Media Arts are all about learning how the media operates in the world to shape the public mind. Media Arts can include working with media production experiences such as journalism, video production, and desktop publishing. In order to be successful in this field, one needs to have well-developed fundamental skills and be a creative person who can produce media messages.
A Bachelor's program in Media Arts provides a thorough background in liberal arts with an emphasis on media forms, such as television, radio, film/video and the Internet. Some of the course often covered in a Media Arts program are Photography, Stage and Sound Engineering, Graphic Design, Layout, and Typography, to name only a few. As a career choice, graduates should expect a very competetive field, and professionals must be motivated and interested in the communications industry to do well. Job titles could include TV producers, directors or technicians, public relations specialist, marketing directors, graphic designers, editorial cartoonists, and even college professors; because it is such a wide field of study, salaries also vary widely.
- Harvestworks Media Arts Center - Provides digital tools for cultivation of media-making talent .
- Association of Transformative Media Arts - Community of media professionals dedicated to personal, professional and creative integrity.
- The National Alliance for Media Arts - National association of non-profit organizations and individuals committed to furthering the media arts.
Medical illustrators create "accurate and aesthetically pleasing visual presentations for the healthcare industry" (Association of Medical Illustrators). Most professionals in this field have a love of art and science who became specially trained artists to communicate complex medical and scientific ideas in a meaningful and understandable manner.
Academic programs in medical illustration require studying of biomedical sciences, exploring new media techniques, mastering solid business practice, and applying all of this in novel ways. Today, index visuals are bringing together medical, scientific and natural science artists from all over the world. A degree in medical illustration is mandatory as the field is quite difficult to master. However, most programs are only two years and usually followed by further education - although there are only a handful of MFA program in the US that offer the specialty of Medical Illustration.
Graduates illustrate innovative surgical procedures for medical journals, design multimedia websites, produce 3D animated films, and hand craft prosthetic appliances for patients. Medical schools, urban medical centers, large hospitals, and clinics employ many medical illustrators.
- Medical Illustration Source Book - Illustrations and photography from professional artists advertising in the Association of Medical Illustrators' Medical Illustration Source Book .
- Applying Art to Medicine - Brief article about the field from Johns Hopkins Magazine, including illustrations.
Media is a way of conveying information, and mutimedia is the full range of methods in which such information is transferred. The most common are text, audio, video, and Internet, and professionals frequently combine media mediums in their work. A successful Internet and booming technology has caused the making and exchanging of information to be more profitable then ever before, and Multimedia professionals work to create compelling presentations and sales pieces, drive traffic to websites, put catalogs on CDs, or develop novelty business cards.
Multimedia is extremely popular in the area of education currently, and degrees range from an Associate's to a Master's, including courses in media literacy, technology, and communications, as well as the arts. There will likely be significant overlap with fields such as Advertising, Art Direction, CAD, Commercial Art, Desktop Publishing, Film/Video, Graphic Design, Illustration, Interactive Media, etc. A person who specializes in the field will learn about the different types of technology and equipment that are learn to listen to a customer's requirements, develop a solution, and explain it clearly. A person in this field can find jobs in advertising, computer art, web design, promotion, businesses that rent equipment, etc.
- International Society on Virtual Systems and MultiMedia - Professional organization intended as a discussion forum for the field, including social and technological issues .
- Association for Multimedia Communications - Presenting ideas & tools for the talent that makes multimedia and the Internet work.
- Yahoo!'s Multimedia - Hundreds of links on the topic, broken down into categories.
Museum Studies is a broad interdisciplinary field which explores the role of museums in shaping society's knowledge about art, culture, history, and the natural world. Careers opportunities in this field can be found in museums, cultural arts centers, historical sites and houses, science centers, environmental education centers, exhibit design firms, planetariums, zoos, and botanical gardens.
Museum Studies programs are often a collaboration between History, Biology and Art Departments, and advanced degrees can be found in the field from the certificate to the masters level. Students should expect to study art conservation, exhibition planning and design, educational programming, management and administration, preservation techniques, art history, and anthropology. The job outlook includes positions as archivists, curators, and museum technicians, which are expected to be keen as qualified applicants outnumber job openings. The job outlook for conservators may be more favorable, particularly for graduates of a conservation program. Employment is expected to increase about as fast as other occupations over the next ten years. The average salary for this field is $31,000 a year (Occupational Outlook Handbook).
- Archivists, Curators, and Museum Technicians - Excellent write-up from the Bureau of Labor Statistics, including education, working conditions, employment, job outlook and salary.
- Journal of Conservation & Museum Studies - Academic publication aimed at the global conservation and museum community .
- Smithsonian Center for Education and Museum Studies - Links to courses and workshops, internships, fellowships, publications, professional support and more.
- Expedition Magazine - Explores human past and present.
Painting has an immense historical significance in the world of art to say the least. From Leonardo Di Vinci to Vincent Van Gogh some of the best known artists have been painters.
Painters render drawings, illustrations, and sketches of buildings, products, or models, working from sketches, blueprints, memory, or reference materials. Painters paint scenic backgrounds, murals, and other renderings for motion-picture and television sets, glass artworks, and exhibits. Painters develop paintings, drawings, diagrams, and models of medical or biological subjects for use in publications, exhibits, research, and teaching.
Painters study techniques, colors, textures, and materials used to maintain consistency in reconstruction or retouching procedures. Painters brush or spray decorative finish on completed background panels, exhibit accessories, or finished paintings and integrate and develop visual elements, such as line, mass, color, and perspective, to produce desired effects on a variety of materials.
- ArtSchools.com Guidance Interview: Painting - "Today's society is full of confusion over the role of the artist," says head painter Alison Bukhgalter. Here, she tells how she sorted out her career in decorative painting.
Photography is an infant in the world of visual arts. It has only been in existence for a few hundred years. However, it has made a name for itself within the expanding world of the visual arts. Originally, photography was limited by the boundaries of visual reality. With time, professionals in the field have tested the rules of reality. This is becoming even more evident with the advent of computer technology. Now the skies are no limit.
Professional photographers benefit from formalized education at institutions that specialize in the art of rendering photography. The education of photographers is not bound to specialized training, as most colleges and universities offer courses in photography. From there, the photographer will find career opportunities in a variety of arenas, including everything from advertising and journalism, to scientific or free-lance professions. Workshops and seminars are also available for continuing education.
A major in photography provides studies in the aesthetic and practical areas of camera-generated imagery. Black & white and color photography are taught using traditional darkroom techniques, and using cutting edge technology with computer-generated and manipulated images and digital photography. Be sure to check out the Bureau of Labor Statistics excellent write-up on Photographers, which includes educational requirements, professional opportunities, and employment trends.
- ArtSchools.com Guidance Interview: Elizabeth Siegfried - To stand out from the crowd, be true to your vision. Don't miss some "platinum" advice, offered in this interview.
- ArtSchools.com Guidance Interview: Bruce Blank - Offers a focused look at the world of photography from a business viewpoint.
- ArtSchools.com Guidance Interview: Ellie Brown - When checking out schools, take a look at what the students are doing. See what this recent MFA graduate has to say about her education.
- PHOTO Techniques - Useful medium to practicing photographers at every stage of the craft.
- Society for Photographic Education - Provides a forum for discussion of photography and related media as a means of creative expression and cultural insight.
- Photographers - From the Bureau of Labor Statistics.
- Yahoo! Photography - Thousands of links and resources for the field.
Printmaking is an art which involves the transferring of an image from one surface (such as an inked plate) to another (such as paper, fabric, metal or wood). The art finds its strength in its artistic value and its ability to be replicated, contributing greatly to the definition of world cultures. One will find alternative printmaking techniques as diverse as Indian, Asian, European, and American cultures. With each, a style has manifested itself over time, becoming a sort of artistic tradition for the people.
Education in printmaking can be found within most college and university fine arts departments. Students learn techniques in woodcarving, screen-printing, and lithography, among other forms of printmaking, together with related photographic, reproductive and digital printmaking techniques. Finally, there are methods of printmaking that can be done fairly easily, using simple household materials, which will provide the beginner with a good footing in the art of printmaking.
Careers in printmaking extend from advertising to publication illustration to free-lance art, to name just a few. Workshops, seminars and organizational memberships are also available for further education.
- Printmaking Links - Includes links to schools, discussions, workshops, organizations, process and more from Middle Tennessee State University.
- American Print Alliance - Non-profit consortium of printmakers' councils.
- About.com: Printmaking Guide - Page of links and resources on the subject.
- Printmaking Page - Focus on materials and technique with special attention to non-toxic studio alternatives in painting and printmaking.
Product design incorporates fine art skills with technical understanding. Those who work in this field design just about any manufactured product that you see in any store, from the simplest household appliances and tools to the most complex computers and medical supplies. The profession provides the opportunity to take ideas from prototype to mass production, including attention to the way a product looks, feels and works.
Educationally, Product Design programs help students to develop skills in drawing, modelmaking and use of computers while also learning about ergonomics, materials and manufacturing processes. There is often some overlap with 3D Design, Computer-Aided Design, Drafting, Industrial Design and/or Visual Communication. It is sometimes recommended that product designers also have a background in engineering, so they better understand the mechanical applications of their design.
- Product Development & Management Association - Charitable educational and research related to the field of product development management.
- Product Design and Development - Monthly magazine on components, materials and systems needed to design high-quality end products.
- The Journal of Sustainable Product Design .
We learn from history. Due to this fact, it is important to properly record the events that symbolize the development of knowledge, culture, and civilization - and the artwork of any particular era is perhaps the most powerful benchmark: It not only provides a context of the times, but an emotional and cognitive element that provides a holistic view of a particular society.
Restoration is the repairing of damages concurred to the art material, the filling of gaps in the canvas support and paint layer, so as to maintain integrity and continuity. Art restoration refers to the restoring and conserving of paintings, murals, sculptures, textiles, manuscripts and so on. A restorer/conservator cleans, mends and protects artifacts from the past, working with a variety of materials, including paint and ceramics.
Education in the field ranges from the certificate and associate level to MFA's and doctorates in conservation, studio art, and/or art history; coursework often includes anthropology, chemistry, world cultures and foreign languages. Different academic programs will focus on different techniques, and students often learn to become specialists; for example, a person preserving paper products needs different knowledge and skills than a person preserving film. Career possibilities are found in museums, historical societies, public archives, curation, historical consulting, and fine art, furniture and or architectural restoration businesses.
- American Institute for Conservation of Historic and Artistic Works - Organization that supports the work of art conservation and preservation.
- Straus Center for Conservation - Analysis and treatments for the collections of the Harvard University Art Museums.
Sculpture is an art form in three dimensions, involving crafted works of almost any material, including clay, glass, metal, plaster, stone, wood, pulp, or anything else that can be manipulated, molded or attached. Sculptures range from tiny models and collectibles to very larger-than-life monuments. In today's society, sculptors may work in foundries, galleries, museums, personal studios or movie studios, making anything from ornaments to exhibits. Sculptors have a basic understanding of the construction of objects and, therefore, they sometimes work professionally in architectural and industrial design.
Education in the field of sculpture can be found at most schools, nationally and globally, at the undergraduate and graduate levels. It is one of the most popular artistic specialties at both the graduate and undergraduate levels, according to statistics from the National Association of Schools of Art and Design. For the recreational sculptor, there are also workshops, seminars and continuing education courses offered in almost any community. Students should expect to learn skills in modeling, carving, forging and fabrication, moldmaking and casting, and nearly all methods of three-dimensional expression. This will prepare students for positions in teaching, fabrication and design of exhibitions, set design, motion picture industry, welding, and three-dimensional design.
- Sculptor.Org - Site to buy and sell sculpture as well as resources for commissioning work.
- National Sculpture Society - Organization of professional sculptors in the United States.
- Yahoo!'s Sculpture - Hundreds of links on the topic.
- International Sculpture Center - Numerous sculpture resources, including Sculpture Magazine.
The art of stained glass gained its acclaim during the early Romanesque period of art in Europe (11th or 12th century). The process involves pieces of colored glass which are cut out of a large sheet of bulk glass, then sometimes painted and fired. In the actual construction of the work, these pieces are fitted together using long flexible strings of lead - a process which can be dangerous if lead levels in the air, or in contact with the skin, are not properly regulated. Finally, when the piece has been completed, it is cemented to make it durable. Interest in the field has grown rapidly in the last 30 years, as new homes are often decorated with stained glass entryways, bathroom windows, lampshades, and window decorations.
Education in Stained Glass Design and/or Construction is found primarily through private workshops through craft centers, art fairs and museums, and through courses and classes offered in art schools and departments. However, there are also a few bachelors and masters degree programs offered, as well. It may also be found as a subset of Glass Art, which is a more commonly found art major. Careers in this field extend from the construction of windows for private and public buildings, to making lamps and jewelry, to fine art sculpture.
- Stained Glass Association of America - Includes articles, news, people, Stained Glass Mart Ads, links and more .
- StainedGlass.info - Good resource for education, resources, products, history, classifieds, etc.
- British Society of Master Glass Painters - Devoted exclusively to the art and craft of stained glass, including accreditation information, events and resources.
- Art Glass World - Stained glass resource, including free patterns, articles, supplies, studios, billboard, calendar, help and more.
For those of us who refuse to grow upÂ… there's toy design. Those of us who grew up with toys realize that there is a simple, innocent quality to playing with an inanimate object. Toys provide children with a positive outlet to explore dreams, fantasies, and the imagination. Toys also help children to form social relationships. Toy designers incorporate product design, engineering, and computer capabilities to help an idea take form. Professionals should also have a basic understanding of marketing to have an idea of whether their toy concepts are sellable - but perhaps, most importantly the toy designer must have an understanding of the consumer: kids of all ages.
Academically, Toy Design is considered a subset of Industrial Design, and it is not commonly found as an independent major (although we have seen a few schools that offer a BFA in Toy Design). Those interested in this specific field should find out how much coursework a school has to offer, but in any case, the study will often involve significant overlap with the fields of CAD, Design, Industrial Design, Product Design and Visual Communications; some principles of engineering and computer programming skills may also be required. Graduates will find that careers are found within toy corporations and private businesses; interactive, computer-based toys are also an emerging specialty within the field.
The field of Transportation Design involves the application of aesthetics to business and industrial settings. Vehichle designers bridge the gap between art and technology by coupling artistic principles with science to improve aerodynamics, and effeciency, performance, and safety. They work to improve airline, train, and bus transportation. They visualize finished designs, objects in pictorial or graphic material, and two-dimensional representations of objects; to make visual comparisons and to see slight differences in shapes. They design roads, and bridges that increase terrestrial travel while preserving the environment through which these roads and bridges exist.
Transportation designers are encouraged to obtain a thorough education in the concepts of design (2D, 3D, and computer), as well as engineering. It is also important for the professional in the transportation design field to have a good understanding of state and national laws regarding highways, motor vehicles, etc. This is an undying field, as human being are fundamentally mobile, and social creatures.
- EAA-Experimental Aircraft Association - Links and resources for aviation, and aviation design.
- International Human Powered Vehicle Association - Association of national associations and organizations, dedicated to promoting improvement, innovation and creativity in the use of human power, especially in the design and development of human-powered vehicles.
For those out there that belong in the world of the technologically elite, but can't quite seem to find your creative niche, here's an idea: website design. It is now widely accepted that computers and the internet are permanent fixtures in technology. It seems that the general appeal to computers is that they provide the world at your fingertips, with a simple click of a button. The world is conveniently compacted into a new existence within cyberspace. Communication of information was positively impacted with the advent of the World Wide Web. With this newfound communication comes a desire to expand especially with various businesses. It is necessary to locate qualified individuals who are adequately acquainted with the inter-workings of these intricate systems. Businesses need artists who can advertise over the Internet.
Those without any backing in the world of computers, never fear. There is help. With an education in the principles of design, advertising, and basic computer skills, you can get in on this up-and-coming field. Additionally, the Internet is famous for the concept of free information; therefore, there are a number of instructional sites that will assist the beginner in getting started.
The portal to online business is website Design. The World Wide Web is expanding at about 7 million new websites a year. Designing a successful Website is the first step toward reaching potential viewers and customers. Businesses want their Website to reflect their personality, their services, and unique ideas. They want to keep abreast of cutting edge technology, and this requires training in website Design. All of this makes for a fast growing field with unlimited potential and comfortable salaries.
- Art Schools Offering Programs in Web Design.
- SmartWebby Website Design Tutorials.
- W3schools.com Web Building Tutorials & Tips.
- WebSiteTips.com Design Tips & Tutorials.